History of latin america, history of the region from the pre-columbian period and including colonization by the spanish and portuguese beginning in the 15th century, the 19th-century wars of independence, and developments to the end of the 20th century. The most stringent bans on speech in the colonial period outlawed or censored religiously blasphemous speech, and failure to abide by these bans was often punishable by death however, research has indicated that from 1607 to 1700, freedom of speech expanded dramatically, laying a foundation for the political dissent of the revolutionary war. Deforestation is decrease of forest cover of an area world forest cover of 7000 million hactares has been reduced 2400 million hectares in 2000 it is estimated that about 40% forests have been lost in the tropics compared to 1% loss in temperatre regions. The deforestation that wood result from european shipbuilding during the age of exploration jessie whitfield historical texts have documented the countless technologies, ideas, diseases, plants and animals the european ships delivered around the world during the age of exploration.
Colonial period, 1788-1901 british settlement of australia began as a penal colony governed by a captain of the royal navy until the 1850s, when local forces began to be recruited, british regular troops garrisoned the colonies with little local assistance. However, during muslim and early british period (east india company period, 1757 - 1857) forest was considered only as the source of timber. Decolonization, then, was a process as well as a historical period yet the nations and regions of africa experienced it with varying degrees of success by 1990, formal european political control had given way to african self-rule—except in south africa. Most articles point out that deforestation in malawi is a recent phenomenon: a feature story in the new york times in 2005 claims that forest cover in malawi was lost between the years of 1990-2000 but other research tells a different story where the problem of deforestation seems to have begun during the pre-colonial period.
Therefore, hemlock would be expected to be under stress during the greater aridity that coincided with the early colonial period and consequently less able to recover from a regime of intense land use and selective harvesting for its tannins throughout the colonial period. The net outcome of the changed circumstances during the colonial period was that the forests came under the sovereignty of the state, which means a move towards centralization the de facto situation was however different. The attempts at environmental history perhaps vary in quality and do not all pertain to the colonial and post-colonial period, but nevertheless, taken as a whole, this book certainly breaks new ground and is well worth a look, especially for any student thinking of writing on a related subject. Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use.
When deforestation was a good thing: eighteenth century attempts to change the american climate posted by michael kay ⋅ 7 may, 2012 ⋅ 4 comments filed under climate , climate change , deforestation , environment , forests , history of science , weather. Zenger's victory set a more generous precedent for american courts during the colonial period but this right of free speech was still far from the right we enjoy today while the colonial courts operated with a more lenient standard, colonial legislatures continued to pass restrictive speech laws. Important black writers like olaudah equiano and jupiter hammon emerged during the colonial period equiano, an ibo from niger (west africa), was the first black in america to write an autobiography, the interesting narrative of the life of olaudah equiano, or gustavus vassa, the african (1789.
During period of the british raj, famines in india, often attributed to failed government policies, were some of the worst ever recorded, including the great famine of 1876-78, in which 61 million to 103 million people died and the indian famine of 1899-1900, in which 125 to 10 million people died. When political tensions erupted during the colonial regime, the malagasy used forests to their advantage in fighting or fleeing the colonists, leading the french military to pursue deforestation as a coercive strategy. Deforestation in the second phase of colonialism (1850 onwards) was due to the increasing number of railways being built in india special trees were needed in order to build the ties on the.
Railways were essential for colonial trade and for the movement of imperial troops large areas of forests were also cleared to make way for plantation crops the british encouraged the production of crops like cotton, jute, sugar, etc. The causes for deforestation in india during british rule were: (i) increase in population, leading to growth in demand for food, and extension of land under cultivation at the expense of forests (ii) colonisation by the british encouraged production of commercial crops. During the period of industrialization, a lot of forests were cleared for the industries to flourish this brought a lot of ecological changes in our planet but under the colonial rule it became more systematic and extensive.
Deforestation is not a recent problem, the process began many centuries ago but under colonial rule it became more systematic & extensive factors that led to deforestation are - 1) in 1600 approximately one-sixth of india 's landmass was under cultivation. Colonisers transported timber wood for there ships production to royal navy this is the major reason for deforestation during colonial period. The basic cause for deforestation in colonial period is theneed of agricultural land to produce more raw material andrevenue during colonial period commercial agriculture ,pl antation of (tea.
Deforestation resulting from european shipbuilding historical texts have documented the countless technologies, ideas, diseases, plants and animals the european ships delivered around the world during the age of exploration. Deforestation in nagaland during colonial period it further tries to reveal the true motive of british in india behind exploiting the natural resources for their profit against the background of rhetoric of conservation of. The main causes of deforestation in india during the british period was the pressure of british government to groe commercial crops like jute,sugar etc which were required to meet the industrial requirements in britain.